Par GUETTEURNORDIQUE le 23 Avril 2018 à 16:46
Woody Strode. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Woodrow Wilson Woolwine "Woody" Strode (July 25, 1914 – December 31, 1994) was an American athlete and actor. He was a decathlete and football star who was one of the first African American players in the National Football League in the postwar era. After football, went on to become a film actor, where he was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor for his role in Spartacus in 1960. He served in the United States Army during World War II.
Strode was born in Los Angeles. He attended Thomas Jefferson High School in South East Los Angeles and college at UCLA, where he was a member of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity. His world-class decathlon capabilities were spearheaded by a 50 ft (15 m) plus shot put (when the world record was 57 ft (17 m)) and a 6 ft 4 in (1.93 m) high jump (the world record at time was 6 ft 10 in (2.08 m)). Strode posed for a nude portrait, part of Hubert Stowitts's acclaimed exhibition of athletic portraits shown at the 1936 Berlin Olympics (although the inclusion of black and Jewish athletes caused the Nazis to close the exhibit).
Strode, Kenny Washington and Jackie Robinson starred on the 1939 UCLA Bruins football team, in which they made up three of the four backfield players. Along with Ray Bartlett, there were four African-Americans playing for the Bruins, when only a few dozen at all played on other college football teams. They played eventual conference and national champion USC to a 0–0 tie with the 1940 Rose Bowl on the line. It was the first UCLA–USC rivalry football game with national implications.
When World War II broke out, Strode was playing for the Hollywood Bears in the Pacific Coast Professional Football League, but soon joined the United States Army Air Corps and spent the war unloading bombs in Guam and the Marianas, as well as playing on the Army football team at March Field in Riverside, California. After the war, he worked at serving subpoenas and escorting prisoners for the L.A. County District Attorney's Office before being signed, briefly, to the Los Angeles Rams along with Kenny Washington. They were the first African-American players to play in the NFL for many years. When out on the road with the team, Strode had his first experience with racism, something he wasn't aware of growing up in Los Angeles. "We were unconscious of color. We used to sit in the best seats at the Cocoanut Grove listening to Donald Novis sing. If someone said, "there's a Negro over there,' I was just as apt as anyone to turn around and say 'Where?'" He also said, "On the Pacific Coast there wasn't anything we couldn't do. As we got out of the L.A. area we found these racial tensions. Hell, we thought we were white."
Strode and fellow UCLA alumnus Kenny Washington were two of the first African-Americans to play in major college programs and later the modern National Football League, along with Marion Motley and Bill Willis, playing for the Los Angeles Rams in 1946. No black men had played in the NFL from 1933 to 1946. UCLA teammate Jackie Robinson would go on to break the color barrier in Major League Baseball (in fact, all three had played in the semi-professional Pacific Coast Professional Football League earlier in the decade). He played for two seasons with the Calgary Stampeders of the Western Interprovincial Football Union in Canada, where he was a member of Calgary's 1948 Grey Cup Championship team before retiring due to injury in 1949.
In 1941, Strode had dabbled for several months in professional wrestling. Following the end of his football career in 1949, he returned to wrestling part-time between acting jobs until 1962, wrestling the likes of Gorgeous George.
In 1952, Strode wrestled almost every week from August 12, 1952 to December 10, 1952 in different cities in California. He was billed as the Pacific Coast Heavyweight Wrestling Champion and the Pacific Coast Negro Heavyweight Wrestling Champion in 1962. He later teamed up with both Bobo Brazil and Bearcat Wright.
As an actor, the 6 ft 4 in (1.93 m) Strode was noted for film roles that contrasted with the stereotypes of the time. He is probably best remembered for his brief Golden Globe-nominated role in Spartacus (1960) as the Ethiopian gladiator Draba, in which he has to fight Spartacus (played by Kirk Douglas) to the death. Draba wins the contest, but instead of killing Spartacus, he attacks the Roman military commander who paid for the fight. He is killed and his death sparks a gladiator rebellion.
Strode made his first credited appearance in 1941 in Sundown, but became more active in the 1950s, eventually in roles of increasing depth. He played an African warrior in The Lion Hunters in Monogram's Bomba the Jungle Boy series in 1951. Also, he appeared in several episodes of the 1952–1954 television series "Ramar of the Jungle", where he portrayed an African warrior. He played dual roles (billed as "Woodrow Strode") in The Ten Commandments (1956) as an Ethiopian king as well as a slave, and in 1959 portrayed the conflicted, some would say cowardly, Private Franklin in Pork Chop Hill. He appeared once on Johnny Weissmuller's 1955–1956 syndicated television series Jungle Jim.
He became a close friend of director John Ford, who gave him the title role in Sergeant Rutledge (1960) as a member of the Ninth Cavalry, greatly admired by the other black soldiers in the unit, who is falsely accused of the rape and murder of a white woman. He appeared in smaller roles in Ford's later films Two Rode Together (1961), The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (1962), and 7 Women (1966). Strode was very close to the director. During Ford's declining years Strode spent four months sleeping on the director's floor as his caretaker, and he was later present at Ford's death.
Strode played memorable villains opposite three screen Tarzans. In 1958, he appeared as Ramo opposite Gordon Scott in Tarzan's Fight for Life. In 1963, he was cast opposite Jock Mahoney's Tarzan as both the dying leader of an unnamed Asian country and that leader's unsavory brother, Khan, in Tarzan's Three Challenges. In the late 1960s, he appeared in several episodes of the Ron Ely Tarzan television series. Strode played the part of Binnaburra in "Incident of the Boomerang" on Rawhide in 1961.
Strode's other television work included a role as the Grand Mogul in the Batman episodes "Marsha, Queen of Diamonds" and "Marsha's Scheme of Diamonds," appearing also in the third season of the Daniel Boone television series as the slave/wrestler Goliath in the episode of the same name.
Strode played a heroic sailor on a sinking ship in the 1960 film The Last Voyage. In 1966, he landed a major starring role as a soldier of fortune and expert archer in The Professionals, a major box-office success that established him as a recognizable star. Another notable part was as a gunslinger in the opening sequence of Sergio Leone's Once Upon a Time in the West (1968). After this, he appeared in several other spaghetti Westerns of lesser quality, to go with his roles in the studio westerns Shalako (1968), The Deserter (1971) and The Gatling Gun (1971). His 1968 starring role as a thinly-disguised Patrice Lumumba in Seduto alla sua destra (released in the U.S. as Black Jesus) garnered Strode a great deal of press at the time, but the film is largely forgotten now.
He remained a visible character actor throughout the 1970s and 1980s in such films as Scream (1981), and has become widely regarded (along with Sidney Poitier and Brock Peters) as one of the most important black film actors of his time. His last film was The Quick and the Dead (1995), which starred Gene Hackman, Leonardo DiCaprio, and Russell Crowe. The closing credits dedicate the film to Strode.
Strode was the son of a Creek–Blackfoot-black father and a black-Cherokee mother. His first wife was Princess Luukialuana Kalaeloa (a.k.a. Luana Strode), a distant relative of Liliuokalani, the last queen of Hawaii. With her he had a son, Kalai, in 1946, and a daughter, June. They were married until her death in 1980. In 1982, he wed Tina Tompson, and they remained married until his death. Strode was a dedicated martial artist under the direction of Frank Landers in the art of SeishinDo Kenpo.
Strode died of lung cancer on December 31, 1994, in Glendora, California, aged 80. He is buried at Riverside National Cemetery in Riverside, California.
Par GUETTEURNORDIQUE le 22 Avril 2018 à 13:18
Authentein (1 Timothy 2:12) in a Nutshell.
Authentein, from the Greek verb authenteō, is a word found only once in the New Testament. It occurs in 1 Timothy 2:12 where it is translated in the King James Bible as “to usurp authority.” I’ve previously written a long and somewhat technical article on authentein. But in this short post, I present information that is easier to follow.
This information comprises three definitions copied from respected lexicons of Ancient Greek and three quotations from respected New Testament scholars who have an excellent knowledge of Greek. The order of the definitions and quotations follows a progression of thought, the aim of which is to show that “to have/use/exercise authority” is an inadequate translation of authentein. (Note the word “full” in the first two definitions.)
Liddell and Scott’s An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon.
αὐθεντ-έω “to have full power”, τινός, New Testament (online source: Perseus).
Chartraine’s Dictionnaire Etymologique de la Langue Grecque.
αὐθεντέω “avoir pleine autorité sur” (NT Pap).
Translation: “have full authority over” (New Testament, Papyri).
"In the overwhelming majority of [instances of authenteō], the authority that is assumed is an authority that has not been properly granted, so it usually carries a negative connotation.”
Philip Payne, Man and Woman, One in Christ: An Exegetical and Theological Study of Paul’s Letters (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2009), 391.
“In fact, to introduce the idea of ‘authority’ into the definition at all may be misleading if it is taken to mean a derived or ordained authority: it is ‘authorship’, not ‘authority’, that is at the heart of the meaning of authenteō. This distinction is crucial. The idea of authority comes into play only when the object of the verb is not an action or state of affairs but a person: one cannot ‘author’ a person, but one can exercise an ad hoc authority over a person in such a way that he or she becomes instrumental in bringing about an action or state of affairs.”
Andrew C. Perriman, “What Eve Did, What Women Shouldn’t Do: The Meaning of Aὐθεντέω in 1 Timothy 2:12,” Tyndale Bulletin 44.1 (1993): 129-142, 37. (A copy of this paper can be downloaded here: TynBull_1993_44_1_08_Perriman_EveITim2.)
“. . . the people who are targets of these actions are harmed, forced against their will (compelled), or at least their self-interest is being overridden because the actions involve an imposition of the subject’s will, ranging from dishonour to lethal force.”
Cynthia Long Westfall, Paul and Gender: Reclaiming the Apostle’s Vision for Men and Women in Christ (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2016), 292.
Authentein in 1 Timothy 2:12 may well give the meaning that Paul is not allowing a woman to control, or to bully, or to domineer a man, possibly her husband. 1 Timothy 2:12 is not addressing the exercise of a healthy kind of authority but is addressing the exercise of an overbearing and controlling use of power. I discuss what this control may have involved in related articles below.